(NIOS Syllabus) Class 12 NIOS Syllabus | Physics
Senior Secondary Course (Syllabus)
Physical is a fundamental science because it deals with such basic feature of the world as time, space, motion matte, electricity, light and radiations. Every event that occurs in the natural world has some feature that can be viewed in these terms. Study of Physics need not necessarily be taken as means of becoming a physicist; it is a means of rationally understanding nature. Physics lies behind all technological advancement such as computer, internet, lunching of rockets and satellites, radios and TV communications, lasers, etc. It also finds applications in such simple activities of men as lifting a heavy weight or making a long jump. Physics is thus an all-pervading science and its study helps us in finding answers to questions like why and how?
In order to bring out various aspects of Physics as a fundamental science the content of the present syllabus has been so chosen as to relate with the study of natural physical phenomenon. The underlying physical laws and principles of such phenomena and their effects on daily life have been reflected in the syllabus. Themes like motion, properties of matter, energies like heat, light and electricity and electronics with would be of interest to all and specially to those who are interested in pursuing Physics as a career have been selected to from our content. The syllabus also includes such emerging areas as electronics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, medical physics and photography, which find immense applications in daily life.
Though mathematics is basic to the understanding of most of the problems of physics, in the present course stress has been given to avoid rigour or mathematics like integration and differentiation. The focus has been to teach concepts of physics rather than mathematics calculation.
This course attempts.
- acquire knowledge and develop understanding of concepts, fundamental laws, principles and processes in the area of physics so that relationship between cause and effects of physical phenomenon can be understood;
- appreciate the contributions of physics towards improving quality of lice;
- promote interest in physics and foster a spirit of enquiry; and
- Improve competencies of individuals in work skills required in their procession.
As a part of this process, the course also aims at developing the following abilities in the learner:
- Experimental skills (like taking observations, manipulation of equipment) and communicative skills such as reporting of observations and experimental result;
- Problems solving ability e.g. analyzing a situation or data, establishing relationship between cause and effects:
- Scientific temper of mind by making judgment on verified facts and not opinions, by showing willingness to accept new ideas and discoveries: and
- Awareness of the dangers inherent in the possible misuse of scientific knowledge.
Structure of the Syllabus
The syllabus in physics includes two parts-core modules and optional modules. The core modules comprises of the essential concepts and phenomenon of physics, which a student at this level should know. It has eight core modules, which contain predominantly the subject matter of mechanics, electricity, light and other areas of physics representing the minimum knowledge required to progress into the more advanced areas and to develop appreciation for the fact that physics plays a significant role in most situations. The optional modules are on the specific fields and have four modules one each on Astrophysics, Electronics, Photography and Audio-Videography and Medical physics. In the optional modules there is a choice to opt any one of the given four modules.
(A) CORE MODULES
|Modules||Marks||Min. Study Time|
|1. Motion, force and Energy||14||45|
|2. Properties of Matter||08||25|
|3. Heat and Thermodynamics||06||20|
|4. Electricity and Magnetism||14||45|
|5. Oscillations and Waves||06||20|
|6. Optics and Optical Instruments||08||25|
|7. Atoms and Nuclei||07||25|
|8. Semiconductors and their Applications||07||20|
(B) OPTIONAL MODULES
(One Module – 10 Marks Each and 30 hrs.)
|3. Photography and Audio-Videography||10||30|
|4. Physics in Medical Sciences||10||30|
The details of Curriculum is given below:
MODULE 1: MOTION, FORCE AND ENERGY
- Unit 1: Dimensional Analysis and Vectors
(iii) Dimensional formula
(iv) Application of dimensional equations
(v) Vectors and their representation (graphically)
(vi) Resolution of vectors in to rectangular components (two dimensions)
(vii) Addition and subtraction of vectors
- Unit 2: Motion in a Straight Line
(i) Distance and displacement,
(ii) Speed and Velocity with special reference to average and relative velocity
(iii) Instantaneous velocity
(iv) Uniform motion with examples.
(v) Non-uniform motion (constant acceleration) with examples.
(vi) Graphical representation of motion in two dimensions (including that of constant acceleration)
(vii) Equations of Motion with numerical problems.
- Unit 3: Newton’s Laws of Motion
(i) Concept of force and inertia
(ii) First law of motion with examples
(iii) Second law of motion with concept of momentum and force.
(iv) Third law of motion with examples.
(v) Free body diagram.
(vi) Conservation of linear momentum
(vii) Friction and lubrication
- Unit 4: Motion in a Plane
(i) Projectile motion (equation, time of fight, rang, and maximum height)
(ii) Uniform circular motion (radial and tangential acceleration)
(iii) Centripetal acceleration
(iv) Application of circular motion
(v) Uniformly rotating frame of reference and non-inertial force (centrifugal force)
(vi) Relation between velocity and angular velocity
- Unit 5: Gravitational moti
(i) Newton’s universal law of gravitation.
(ii) Inertial mass and gravitational mass.
(iii) Acceleration due to gravity and its variation.
(iv) Kepler’s laws.
(v) Motion of planets, orbital and escape velocity.
(vi) Satellites – geostationary, weightlessness.
- Unit 6: Work, Energy and Power
(i) Work done by a constant force.
(ii) Work done by a carrying force (graphical method) with example of spring.
(iii) Work-energy relation
(iv) Conservative and non-conservative force.
(v) Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) with examples.
(vi) Conservation of energy, (spring, pendulum, etc.)
(vii) Elastic and inelastic collision
(viii) Power and its units.
- Unit 7: Rotational Motion
(i) Rigid body motion, center of mass, couple and Torque.
(ii) Moment of inertia, radius of gyration and its significance.
(iii) Theorems of Motion for a uniformly rotating rigid body (no derivation)
(iv) Angular momentum and its conservation with simple application.
(v) Rotational and translational motions with example (motion of ball, cylinder, flywheel on an inclined plane.
MODULE 2: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
- Unit 1: Properties of solids
(i) Elastic properties and hook’s law.
(ii) Young’s modules, Bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity and compressibility.
(iii) Applications of elasticity-cantilever, girder etc.
- Unit 2: Properties of Liquids
(i) Hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy.
(ii) Pascal’s law and its application
(iii) Forces of Cohesion and adhesion
(iv) Surface energy and surface Tension.
(v) Angle of contact and capillary action.
(vi) Application of surface tension, liquid drops, bubbles and detergents
(vii) Types of liquid flow-laminar and turbulent, Reynolds number,
(viii) Viscosity and Stoke’s law.
(ix) Bernoulli’s Theorem (no derivation) and its applications.
- Unit 3: Properties of Gases
(i) Kinetic theory of gases (with derivation of ideal gas equation state)
(ii) K. E. and temperature relationship
(iii) Specific heat of gases, equilibrium of heat.
(iv) Specific heats Cp and C v and their relationship.
MODULE 3: HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
- Unit 1: Laws of thermodynamics
(i) Thermodynamic variables, concept of hear, and thermodynamic equilibrium.
(ii) Temperature and its measurement.
(iii) Principle of Calorimetery.
(iv) Thermodynamic processes – isothermal, adiabatic, reversible, irreversible and cyclic process
(v) First law of thermodynamics – internal energy
(vi) Second change, phase diagram, latent heat, triple point, and concept of entropy and its significance.
(vii) Carnot’s Cycle and its Efficiency.
- Unit 2: Transfer of Heat
(i) Conduction of Heat
(ii) Convection of Heat
(iii) Radiation of Heat
(iv) Black Body Radiation
(v) Wien’s Law
(vi) Stefan’s Law
(vii) Green House Effect
(viii) Newton’s Law of Cooling.
MODULE 4: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
- Unit 1: Electrostatics
(i) Properties of electric charge-quantizations & conservation.
(ii) Coulomb’s law (vector form)
(iii) Electric field and field or point charge (through diagram)
(iv) Force in and charged particle in electric field.
(v) Electric field of a dipole and dipole moment
(vi) Behavior of electric dipole in uniform electric field.
(vii) Electric Potential due to appoint charge, due to a dipole and potential energy.
(viii) Relation between electric field and potential
(ix) Statement and use of Gauss theorem Determining electric field of a point charge, ling wire, plane sheet, solid sphere, spherical shell.
(x) Conductors, and field inside conductor, electrostatic shielding.
(xi) Capacitors and their combinations
(xii) Dielectric and their polarization
(xiii) Electric field in dielectric, capacitor with dielectric.
- Unit 2: Electric Current
(i) Electric current in a conductor
(ii) Ohm’s law, Resistivity of material and Colour coding of resistors.
(iii) Combination of resistances (series and parallel)
(iv) Kirchoff’s laws and their application to electrical circuits
(v) Wheatstone bridge principle
(vi) Potentiometer and its application
- Unit 3: Chemical and Thermal Effects of Electric Current
(i) Heating effect of electric current, joules law of heating
(ii) Electrolysis – Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and their application
(iii) Thermoelectricity (Seabeck, peltier and Thomson effect (only qualitative)
- Unit 4: Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
(i) Magnetic effect of electric current
(ii) Bio-Savart law – Magnetic field at the center of a coil carrying current (qualitative treatment)
(iii) Amprere’s circuital law and its application in finding magnetic field of a wire loop (at a center), toroid and solenoid.
(iv) Force on a current carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field and definition of ampere.
(v) Force on a charged particle in a magnetic field and Lorentz force.
(vi) Magnetic dipole moment of a current loop
(vii) Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
(viii) Moving coil Galvanometer and its conversion into ammeter and voltmeter.
- Unit 5: Magnetism
(i) Magnet and magnetic field
(ii) Components of Earth’s magnetic field
(iii) Molecular theory of magnetism (qualitatively)
(iv) Dia, para and Ferro magnetic materials
- Unit 6: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
(i) Faraday’s law of electro-magnetic induction
(ii) Lenz’s law
(iii) Self and mutual induction
(iv) Growth and decay of current in L. R and CR circuits (qualitative)
(v) Alternating current and voltage, illustrating with phase diagram – Peak and RMS values.
(vi) Circuits containing only R. L or C separately, their phase relationship between I &V
(vii) Power in AC circuit – Power factor and watts current (pure inductor and Pure capacitor)
(viii) LCR series combination (using phaser diagram only) and resonance
- Unit 7: Electric Power Generation and its Transmission
(i) Generators – AC and DC
(iii) Transmission of power (domestic and industrial distribution)
(iv) Various energy sources, electrical power generation – hydro-electricity, chemical energy, molecular energy, wind energy and solar energy.
(v) Status of Electric power in India.
(vi) Problem of low voltage and load shedding.
MODULE 5: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
- Unit 1: Simple Harmonic Motion
(i) Periodic motion – amplitude, period frequency and phase
(ii) Simple Harmonic Motion as a projection of uniform circular motion with examples of spring and simple pendulum.
(iii) Forced oscillations – resonance with examples.
(iv) Damped oscillations with exa
mple (without mathematics)
- Unit 2: Elastic Waves
(i) Moving pulse, harmonic waves, wavelength, frequency, speed and their relationship, amplitude of wave
(ii) Wave motion in taut string, formula for its speed.
(iii) Wave motion in gaseous medium and formula for its speed.
(iv) Phase difference between two harmonic waves.
(v) Superposition of waves – interference of waves, reflection of waves from rigid boundary, standing waves and beast (only qualitative treatment, with equation)
(vi) Characteristics of sound waves.
(vii) Threshold of hearing, intensity of sound and its unit.
(viii) Shock waves, noise pollution.
(ix) Resonance column (overtones and harmonics) only through diagram
(x) Doppler’s effect and its application.