# (NIOS Syllabus) Class 12 NIOS Syllabus | Mathematics 2012

Senior Secondary Course (Syllabus)
Mathematics

RATIONALE
The curriculum in Mathematics has been designed to cater to the specific needs of NIOS learners. The thrust is on the applicational aspects of mathematics and relating learning to the daily life and work situation of the learners. The course is modular in nature with – eight compulsory modules forming the core curriculum and four optional modules out of which the learner is to choose one optional module. An attempt has been made to reduce rigour and abstractness.

OBJECTIVES
The course aims at enabling learners to :
• become precise, exact and logical.
• acquire knowledge of mathematical terms, symbols, facts and formulae.
• develop an understanding of mathematical concepts.
• develop problem solving ability.
• acquire skills in applying the learning to situation including reading charts, tables, graphs etc.
• apply the above skills in solving problems related to Science, Commerce and daily life.
• develop a positive attitude towards Mathematics and its application.

COURSE STRUCTURE
The compulsory modules are :
1. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
2. Determinants and Matrices
3. Permutations and Combinations
4. Sequences and Series
5. Trigonometry
6. Coordinate Geometry
7. Differential Calculus
8. Integral Calculus
The optional modules are :
9. Statistics and Probability
10. Vectors and Analytical Solid Geometry
11. Linear Programming

MODULE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDY HOURS AND MARKS

 S.No. Compulsory Modules Minimum Study Hours Marks 1 Complex Numbers & Quadratic Equations 15 10 2 Determinants & Matrices 15 10 3 Permutations & Combinations 20 08 4 Sequences & Series 20 08 5 Trigonometry 30 10 6 Coordinate Geometry 30 10 7 Differential Calculus 45 17 8 Integral Calculus 45 17 Optional Modules(The learner have to choose any one module) 9 Statistics & ProbabilityOR 20 each 10 each 10 Vectors & Analytical Solid GeometryOR 11 Linear Programming Total 240 100

CURRICULUM OF SENIOR SECONDARY MATHEMATICS

COMPULSORY MODULES

Module 1: Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Study Time: 15 hrs. Max. Marks: 10

Pre-requisites: Real numbers and quadratic equations with real coefficients.

Content and Extent of Coverage

• Complex Numbers
– Definition in the form x + iy
– Real and imaginary parts of a complex number.
– Modulus and argument of a complex number
– Conjugate of a complex number
• Algebra of Complex number
– Equality of complex numbers
– Operations on complex numbers (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division)
– Properties of operations (closure, commutativity, associativity, identity, inverse, distributivity)
– Elementary properties of modulus namely
(i) | z | = 0 z = 0 and z1 = z2 | z1| = | z2 |
(ii) | z1 + z2 | ≤ | z2 | + | z2 |
(iii) | z1/z2 | = | z1 | / | z2 | (z2≠0)
• Argand Diagram
– Representation of a complex number by a point in a plane.
– Solution of quadratic equation with real coefficients using the quadratic formula
– Square root of a complex number
– Cube roots of unity

Extended Learning

• Polar representation of a complex number
• Quadratic equations with complex coefficients

NOTE :
– “Division by zero is not allowed in complex numbers” to be stressed.
– Lack of order in complex numbers to be highlighted.
– The fact that complex roots of a quadratic equation with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs but the same may not be true if the coefficients are complex numbers is to be verified using different examples.

Module 2: Determinants and Matrices

Study Time: 15 hrs. Max. Marks: 10

Pre-requisites : Knowledge of number systems; solution of system of linear equations.

Content and Extent of Coverage

• Determinants and their Properties
– Minors and Cofactors
– Expansion of a determinant
– Properties of determinants
• Matrices
– Introduction as a rectangular array of numbers
– Matrices upto order 3×4
• Types of matrices
– Square and rectangular matrices
– Unit matrix, zero matrix, diagonal, row and column matrices
– Symmetric and skew symmetric matrices
• Algebra of matrices
– Multiplication of a matrix by a number
– Sum and difference of matrices
– Multiplication of matrices
• Inverse of a square matrix
– Minor and cofactors of a matrix
– Inverse of a matrix
• Solution of a system of linear equations
– Solution by Cramer’s Rule
– Solution by matrix method

NOTE:
– The properties of determinants to include the following:
1. If any two rows or columns of a determinant are interchanged, then the sign of the determinant is changed.
2. If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is multiplied by a constant, the value of the determinant gets multiplied by.
3. If k times a row (or column) is added to another row (or column) the value of the determinant remains unchanged.
– The number of equations and variables to be restricted to three only.

Extended Learning

• Cramer’s Rule for four or more equations
• Determi
nant as a function
• Matrix as a function
• Matrices over complex numbers
• Hermitian and Skew Hermitian
• Rank of a Matrix
• Inverse by elementary row transformations
• Solution of 4 or more than 4 linear equations in 4 more than 4 variables

Module 3: Permutations, Combinations and Binomial Theorem

Study Time: 20 hrs. Max. Marks: 8

Pre-requisites : Number Systems

Content and Extent of coverage

• Mathematical Induction
– Principle of mathematical induction
– Application of the principle in solving problems
• Permutations
– Fundamental Principle of Counting
– Meaning of nPr
– Expression for nPr
• Combinations
– Meaning of nCr
– Expression for nCr
– Properties of nCr namely
(i) nCr = nPr/n!
(ii) n Cr=nCn-r
(iii) nCr-1+nCr=n+1Cr
• Binomial Theorem
– Binomial theorem for a positive index with proof.
Extended Learning
• Circular permutations
• Pascal’s triangle
• Binomial theorem for negative index and rational indices (without proof)

Module 4: Sequences and Series

Study Time: 20 hrs. Max. Marks: 8

Pre-requisites : Permutation, Combination and concept of a function, Exponential functions, Logarithmic functions and their properties, and graphs.

Content and Extent of coverage

• Arithmetic Progression
– Concept of a sequence
– A.P as a sequence
– General term of an A.P
– Sum upto ‘n’ terms of an A.P.
• Geometric Progression
– G.P as a sequence
– General term of a G.P
– Sum upto ‘n’ terms of a G.P.
– Sum upto infinite terms of a G.P.
Series
– Concept of a series
– Some important series, etc. using method of differences and mathematical induction
• Exponential and Logarithmic Series
– Representation of x e and log(1+ x) as series.
– Properties of x e and log(1+ x)

Extended Learning

• Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean
• Harmonic Progression, Arithmetico- Geometric Progression and their relationships
• Logarithms on any base

Module 5 : Trigonometry

Study Time: 30 hrs. Max. Marks: 10

Pre-requisites : Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle.

Content and Extent of coverage

• Functions
– Concept of a function
– Domain, codomain and range of a function
– Graphs of functions
– Odd and even functions
– Some important functions
• Composition of Functions
– Composition of two or more functions
– Inverse of a Function
• Trigonometric Ratios
– Trigonometric ratios as functions
– Graphs of T-ratios
– Periodicity
– T-ratios of allied angles
– Inverse Trigonometric ratios
– Addition and subtraction formulae for trigonometric functions
– Sines, Cosines and Tangents of multiples and submultiples
– Solution of simple trigonometric equations

Extended Learning

• Properties of triangles
• Solution of triangles
• Properties of inverse functions
• Trigonometric equations and their solutions
• General solution of Trigonometric equations

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• is there a choice between limit and differentiation
is there a choice between tangents and differentition

tamannachawla on 02 Mar 2013
• INSURANCE & SHARE/ DEBENTURES CHAPTER ARE INCLUDED IN MATHS SYLLABUS OR NOT ?

AMANAT on 01 Feb 2013
• i want the new syllubus of 2012/2013.bcoz i’m not sure if it is the new or old syllubus

rose on 24 Jan 2013
• i want detail of all chapter for maths (12 class),,,,,plzzz tel me ,,,,

yusuf ishtiyaque on 12 Jan 2013
• give details of all the chapters that are to be studied for exams.give details of the topics of each chapter

puneet on 04 May 2012
• Pleas give details of the all chapters for mathematics.kindly let me know the details of all the chapters ,that are to be studied.

puneet on 04 May 2012
• in book there are many places where sum is miss print
and rear examples…

abdul aziz on 06 Apr 2012
• I am madan kumar, 12th class student. I am exam october

(Mai mdan kumar, 12th class me admission liya hu, jo mera final paper april me hoga ab mai october me mai math ka paper dena chah raha hu,to math me mera kam number aaya or mai math me pass hu, to mai percentage(%)bdhane ke liye april me exam de sakta hu. please send massage.

Thank you