(NIOS Syllabus) Class 12 NIOS Syllabus | Economics



Economics Syllabus Class XII
Sr Secondary Course (Biology)

Biology arose in a two fold manner – firstly, as a practising art towards exploring and improving a variety of usable plant and animal products as well as towards maintaining good health; secondly, as an academic pursuit out of human curiosity to know about themselves and other living beings and to understand the position of humankind on the planet Earth. In other words, the storehouse of knowledge about living beings started building up only when humans were curious to know about life. In order to respect and appreciate the great diversity in living things at all levels of organisation, and to understand the impact of biological development on our life style, an attempt has been made in the present syllabus to bring out the different facts of Life. Hence, the themes that highlight the contribution of biology to the analysis and solution of problems of daily life like growth, health, nutrition, and environment, have been chosen as components of the content. The topics based on these themes will be dealt at the individual and community levels. Efforts have been made to reflect biology as not merely a correlational science but also as an experimental discipline by dealing with different tools and techniques used in biological studies. However, the vastness of knowledge has delimited the scope of each topic included in the syllabus. Besides integrating the content and the depth at which it could be dealt, modernity of the concepts as well as emerging areas like Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Immunology have also been introduced. The syllabus includes some optional modules to help the students to enrich in areas of their choice which should facilitate them to choose a career or pursue higher education. The course would enable the learner to :-

  1. acquire knowledge of biological terms, facts, concepts, principles, and processes in order to understand the living world as a whole.
  2. appreciate diversity in the living world as also inter-relationships of various living organisms, ecological balance in nature, and the role of biology in human welfare.
  3. visualise the hazards of nuclear weapons and environmental pollution, and to create an awareness for ecological use of natural resources in the service of humankind.
  4. develop insight into the role and impact of Biology in various allied professions such as medicine, agriculture forestry, biotechnology, veterinary sciences and pharmacology.
  5. Develop interest in the living world with an aim to respect life. As a part of this process, the syllabus also aims at developing the following abilities in the students to:
    –(i) apply knowledge and understanding of biology in situations which are novel and unfamiliar by developing abilities to analyse, hypothesise, draw conclusion and predict results.
    –(ii) develop skills in handling, improvising and manipulating scientific apparatus, and recording observations and data.
    –(iii) develop scientific attitude through the mode of curiosity and evidence for proof.

The syllabus contains 8 core modules and 4 optional modules which are as follows:-

1. Diversity and evolution of life 6
2. Cell, Cell functions and Tissues 10
3. Functional morphology and Life processes in plants 11
4. Functional morphology and Life processes in animals 11
5. Reproduction and Development 10
6. Heredity and Genetics 10
7. Population Explosion and Family Planning 4
8. Environmental Biology 8

1. Tools and Techniques in Biology 10
2. Economic Biology 10
3. Health Science 10
4. Emerging Areas in Biology-
Biochemistry, Biotechnology
and Immunobiology 10

The core modules are compulsory for all learners.
From the list of optional modules the learner can take
any 1 course of his/her choice. Thus, each learner
takes 9 modules in all.
Core Modules 70
Optional Modules 10
Practical Examination 20
Grand Total 100


Study Time : 25 hours Marks : 6

This module is intended to enable the learner to visualize the origin of life on earth and the vast diversity in the living world from simple to more complex and to attempt to group them together at various levels of classification. In addition, it points out that studies of fossils and changes in population in time and space provide evidence that evolution has occured and is still occurring and provides an explanation for the mechanism of these changes.

  • Unit 1 Classification of organisms
    l Principles of classification and taxonomic categories.
    l Linnaeus and binomial nomenclature, general rule for naming, writing and printing of scientific names of organisms.
    l Taxonomic categories (taxa) from, species upto phylum.
  • Unit 2 Viruses
    l Characteristics of viruses, taking examples of TMV, Polio, HIV, bacteriophage T2.
  • Unit 3 Scheme of five kingdom classification of organisms.
  • Unit 4 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera)
    l Chemical nature, general structure and characteristics of bacteria with common examples.
    l Mention of useful and harmful bacteria like Lactobacillus, Rhizobium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Clostridium tetani, Cornybacterium diphtheria
  • Unit 5 Kingdom Protista
    l General characteristics and classification upto phyla with examples of Amoeba, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Euglena & Diatoms
  • Unit 6 Fungi
    l General characteristics of fungi, useful and harmful fungi, examples-Rhizopus.(Breadmould), Yeast, Penicillium notatum, Puccinia graminis (wheat rust)
  • Unit 7 Kingdom Plantae
    Algae- Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra Bryophyta (Liverworts and Mosses), Pteridophyta (Ferns), Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms), General morphological features of flower and fruit and some common examples of the following families: Poaceae (Graminae), Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) and Leguminosae (only Papilionaceae).
  • Unit 8 Kingdom Animalia
    Main characteristics, classification upto phylum and common examples of Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata; Chordata upto classes, classification of Mammalia upto subclasses, with important examples for all.
  • Unit 9 Origin and Evolution of Life
    a) Origin of life : Views, spontaneous generation, experiments of Pasteur, Abiogenesis hypothesis, Oparin’s hypothesis of origin of life, Miller’s experiment.
    b) Organic evolution, progressive and retrogressive evolution, evidences of evolution. Theories of evolution – Lamarckism, Darwinism, Mutation Theory, Neo Darwinism.

Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints While explaining taxonomic categories of classification examples should be given (in a tabular form, e.g. complete classification of the house of cat and man.) While discussing plant and animal groups, their characteristics, leve
ls of organisation and other features should be given in a tabular form. The fact that evolution is a continuous process should be highlighted. Suggested extended learning Find out what microbiology deals with. Read articles on the studies made by evolutionists regarding the history of development of mankind in magazines and newspapers. Read and see films on Civilization.


Study Time : 30 hours Marks : 10

This module is designed to get an insight into the entire living world as composed of basically the same kind of unit structure – the cell. All functions in the living body are ultimately the outcome of the activities of cells. The cells are composed of numerous organelles – each concerned with its specific function. Though fundamentally similar, the cells show a vast array of modification and specialization forming tissues to suit the need of different parts of the body and more so in the different kinds of organisms. The learner should be able to understand and appreciate that all organisms starts their life as a tiny single cell which, by repeated division and growth, may finally give rise to giants like elephant or banyan tree.

  • Unit 1 Cell Structure
    Discovery of cell, cell theory, cell-its shape, size, physical and chemical composition, generalized cell structure as seen under compound and electron microscopes, differences between animal and plant cell. Cell organelles – structure and functions of cell wall, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, micro bodies, Mitochondria, chloroplast, centrosome, cilia and flagella, nucleus (excluding chemical nature of chromosomes) and cell inclusions.
  • Unit 2 Cell Division :
    Mitosis and its significance. Meiosis and its significance.
  • Unit 3 Tissues :
    Plant Tissues-Meristems-Apical, Intercalary and Lateral: Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem and Phloem. Animal Tissues-Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous.
  • Unit 4 Levels of Organisation (cell to organism)
    A general idea about the ascending order of levels of organization-cell, tissues, organ, organ system and organism. Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Suitable examples from daily life should be taken in order to explain the levels of organisation, for example the root systems of a tree is one of its organ systems having root, root hairs etc. Suggested Extended Learning Find out about ‘cancer’ cells which differ from normal cells in that they multiply rapidly and wildly and do not follow the normal rules of cellular conduct. Get to know about the tools involved in the investigation of cells.


Study time : 35 hrs Marks : 11

This module intends to highlight the complex nature of the structure and function of the different organsystems in plants with special emphasis on the life processes occuring in higher plants (e.g. in a flowering plant).

Pre-requisite knowledge
Elementary idea about different types of root, stem and leaf and their functions.

  • Unit 1 :- Root
    Primary growth, primary structure of dicot and monocot roots, mode of origin of lateral roots. Secondary growth in dicot roots. Special features of root for common functions of anchorage, growth in soil, absorption, conduction of water and mineral salts, as well as special functions of storage and respiration. Distribution of mechanical tissues to withstand pulling strain.
  • Unit 2 Stem
    Primary growth, primary structure of dicot and monocot stem, mode of origin of lateral branches. Secondary growth in dicot stem. Growth rings (annual rings), sap wood and heart wood. Structural features for support, exposing leaves and flowers to favourable positions, conduction as well as special functions of storage and photosynthesis. Distribution of mechanical tissues to withstand bending strain.
  • Unit 3 Absorption and Transport
    Active and passive absorption, diffusion, osmosis, major theories on transport of water and organic substances.
  • Unit 4 Nutrition
    Macronutrients and micronutrients. Deficiency symptoms.
  • Unit 5 Leaf
    Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaf.
    Distribution of mechanical tissues, stomata, hairs and hydathodes, vascular tissues, air spaces etc.
  • Unit 6 Transpiration and Guttation
    Processes, magnitude and significance of transpiration and guttation, and factors affecting them.
  • Unit 7 Photosynthesis
    The process and its significance. Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Unit 8 Respiration
    Aerobic, anaerobic, respiratory quotient, factors affecting respiration (excluding biochemical pathways), fermentation.
  • Unit 9 Flower and Inflorescence
    Parts of a typical flower, flowers in dicots and monocots, arrangement and condition of various parts of flower. Placentation, major types of inflorescence.
  • Unit 10 Fruit
    Definition, major categories, edible parts of common fruits,
  • Unit 11 Growth and Development
    Definitions of growth and development, growth curve, stages of plant growth, photoperiodism, vernalisation hormonal regulation of growth, measurement of growth. Different types of plant movement and responses; growth, turgor, hydration, tropic and nastic movements. Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Specimens of fresh plants should be observed by a learner while studying about its various parts. This should be highlighted in the instuction material. Activities which one can do at home should be given, for example : observing osmosis in a carrot. Suggested Extended Learning Read about Hybrid Plants which give new varieties of flowers, fruits etc.

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Ask a Question:

  • Define taxonomic hierarchy ? List the categories used in classification of organisms.

    aman vinny on 30 Jun 2011