(NIOS Syllabus) Class 12 NIOS Syllabus | Commerce
Senior Secondary Course (Syllabus)
The trend today in business is towards globalization. The entire world has become one big market. Development in transportation and communication has layed a significant role in unifying varrious countries of the world. Business activities play a vital role in the development of a country. Its increasing contribution to production of goods and services measures the level of growth in an economy. Today goods are produced and sold in anticipation of demand. Business as an activity has become more complex and sensitive. It is also exposed to greater risks and uncertainties. Hence the activity requires a systematic learning and professional handling. The current syllabus is designed to cater to the needs of National Open School students in various areas of business studies. It aims at creating an interest and understanding in the area of trade, and its auxiliaries, management, finance, and marketing and would enable the students to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills. The scope of business as a career is also highlighted. The entire course content is divided into core and optional modules. Learning experiences considered essential for business studies are described in core modules, whereas practice oriented areas have been covered in optional modules. The optional modules of the syllabus are based on vocational areas e.g. office procedures and practices, banking, setting up factories, and agency services. The modules would help the learners to enter the world of employment/self-employment by creating an interest in them for vocational activities.
DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
|S.No.||Name of Modules||Marks||Hours|
|1||Introduction to Business||16||40|
|2||Business as a Career||8||10|
|3||Trade and Service Activities||16||40|
|4||Management of Business||16||40|
|5||Financing of Business||12||30|
|Choose Any out of 4 Modules|
|7||Office procedures and Practices|
|9||Introduction to Factory Set-up|
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
- The main objectives is to prepare the learners for activities related to trade and commerce.
- To enable the learners to acquire knowledge, understanding and skill in business and management.
- To create an interest in trade and auxiliaries and various kinds of services.
- To educate the learner about the role of business in the economy and its social obligation to the community.
- To acquaint the learner with the nature and scope of business and form of business organisation and its suitability.
- To make them aware about the concept of tradeinternal and external and activities auxiliary to trade.
- To develop in them awareness about managerial skills like planning organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
- To make them understand the concept of business finance sources (long-term, short-term), financial institutions and their services.
- To develop in them the understanding of marketing, channels of distribution, sales promotion, advertising and personal selling.
- To make them aware about avenues of employment, career development and selfemployment, office procedure and practices, functions of commercial funds, factory set-up and agency services.
MODULE-I: INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS
TIME: 40 HOURS MARKS: 16
This module is designed to acquaint the learners with the nature and scope of business, and the different forms of business organisations.
Understanding of human activities and knowledge of various forms of business organisation.
- Unit. 1 Nature and scope of Business.
- Unit. 2 Forms of Business Organisation:
Sole Proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family, Partnership, Joint Stock Company, Co-operative Societycharacteristics.
Suitability of different forms of Business organisation.
MODUL- II: BUSINESS AS A CAREER
TIME : 10 HOURS MARKS : 8
This module explains business as a career, need for employment, avenues of employment and concept of self-employment. It analyses and identifies various jop opportunities in offices and business in general. It also describes the procedure of establishing a small enterprise.
PRE-REQUISITE KNOWLEDGE :
Understanding of the nature and scope of business.
CONTENT UNITS :
- Unit. 1 Concept of career, need for employment. Avenues of employment and career in business through wageemployment.
- Unit. 2 Self – employment in business and qualities required for success in business.
- Unit. 3 How to establish a business enterprise.
MODULE-III : TRADE AND SERVICE ACTIVITIES
TIME : 40 HOURS MARKS: 16
This module is designed to familiarise the learner with the importance of the different types of trade and its auxiliaries
General knowledge of various concepts of trade and its auxiliaries.
- Unit. 1 Trade and auxiliaries to trade.
- Unit. 2 Internal Trade: Meaning of Retail and Wholesale Trade, Services of wholesaler and Retailer.
Specialised Retailing Agencies: Departmental Stores, Multiple Shops, Mail Order Houses, Super Bazars – their characterist
ics, merits and demerits.
- Unit. 3 External Trade: Procedure of Export and Import Trade, Main documents used in Foreign Trade.
- Unit. 4 Service Activities: Transport, Communication, Postal Services, Banking and Insurance.
MODULE-IV : MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS
TIME: 40 HOURS MARKS: 16
This module is designed to acquaint the learners with the concepts, general principles and functions of business management.
PRE – REQUISITE KNOWLEDGE:
General idea about management and role of managers.
- Unit. 1 Introduction to Management: Definition, nature and scope of management, concept of scientific management and principles of general management.
- Unit. 2 Planning: Meaning and process.
- Unit. 3 Organising: Process of organising.
- Unit. 4 Staffing: Recruitment and Selection of employees, their training and development, appraisal and promotion.
- Unit. 5 Directing: Meaning and importance of communication, motivation, leadership and supervision.
- Unit. 6 Co-ordination and Controlling: Meaning and process.
MODULE-V: FINANCING OF BUSINESS
TIME : 30 HOURS MARKS : 12
This module is to introduce the learner with different sources of finance and financial institutions.
General understanding of the basic concepts of financing of business.
CONTENT UNITS :
- Unit. 1 Introduction to Business Financing.
- Unit. 2 Sources of Short-Term Finance – Nature and characteristics.
- Unit. 3 Sources of Long-Term Finance- Nature and characteristics.
- Unit. 4 Role of Specialised Financial Institutions- Objectives and functions of IFCI, IDBI, ICICI, UTI and SFCs, related to financing of business.