(NIOS Syllabus) Class 12 NIOS Syllabus | Chemistry 2012

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Chemistry Syllabus Class XII
Sr Secondary Course (Chemistry)
CURRICULUM

RATIONALE
According to present scheme of school education at Senior Secondary stage, chemistry emerges out as a separate discipline. It is this stage where major emphasis is to be laid on providing suitable conceptual foundation.

The present chemistry course has been developed basically around the themes: Why to chemical reactions occur? What is the quantitative relationship among reacting constituents in a chemical reaction? How far and how fast will a chemical reaction proceed under a given set of conditions? Can we predict whether a chemical reaction will occur or not? What is the relation between the structure of a chemical substance and its functions/properties? In what way is a chemical reaction relevant for getting new types of substances and materials for daily life and chemical industries?

In the present course, there is no compartmentalization like physical, inorganic and organic chemistry. However basic chemical concepts considered necessary in the study of descriptive chemistry (inorganic and organic) are provided in the beginning of the course and an effort has been made to provide a disciplinary structure to chemistry and, therefore, a logical sequencing of concepts is provided. Applications of chemistry in daily life have been interwoven with the conceptual themes in such a way that learners can appreciate the importance of the study of chemistry relevant to daily life and in the economic development of the country. Some interdisciplinary aspects have also been provided to make the course more meaningful and functional.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
At the end of the course, it is expected that a learner will be able to:
· Understand the principles, theories and laws of chemistry responsible for various chemical processes/reactions,
· Realize the role of chemistry in production of many elements (metals/non-metals) and compounds useful in industries and daily life.
· Appreciate the chemical nature of inorganic and organic substances around him/her,
· Choose various vocational, professional and applied course of his/her choice based on knowledge of chemistry gained. Apart from this, the present course also aims at developing the following in the learner:
· Perform chemical calculations to know about the chemical reactions and chemical compounds,
· Explain chemical reactions, concepts and phenomenon,
· Develop awareness about uses and abuses of chemical substances,
· Develop skills like arranging/setting apparatus, handling apparatus and chemicals properly, and
· Analyse and synthesise simple compounds.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE COURSE
The academic standard of the present chemistry course is comparable with the chemistry course of any State Education Board or Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. Considering the nature of open learning system, it has been found desirable to divide the course into class XI and class XII. The rationale behind the course is that every Unit has a role to play in understanding the holistic view of chemistry. The course also provides optional modules ‘mostly of applied nature’ out of which a student can choose one module according to his/her choice of career. Thus, there are seven course modules and five optional modules. A student appearing for senior secondary examination is expected to offer all the seven core modules, one module out of five optional modules, and practicals. All the core and optional modules are listed below:

CORE MODUELS
S.No.
Module Study
Marks
Alloted
Hours
1Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry714
2States of Matter718
3Chemical Energetics823
4Chemical Dynamics719
5Structure of Atoms and Chemical
Bonding
1133
6Elements and Their compounds1548
7Chemistry of Organic Compounds1548
OPTIONAL MODULES
1Agricultural Chemistry1037
2Bio-Chemistry
3Environmental Chemistry
Total80240

A detailed curriculum is given for your ready reference

CORE MODULES

MOUDLE 1 : ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIMOMETRY

  • Unit 1 Measurements in Chemistry
    · A simple idea of basic SI units
    · Derived SI unit
    · Numerical Problems
  • Unit 2 Mole Concept
    · Counting and weighting of atoms and molecules
    · Avogadro constant
    · Molar quantities
    · Numerical problems
  • Unit 3 Chemical Stoichimoetry
    · Empirical and molecular formulae
    · Chemical formula and percentage composition (chemical formula from percentage composition and vice versa)
    · Mass relationship in chemical reactions (mole ratio from a balanced chemical equation, mole calculation)
    · Limiting reagent concept and percentage yield.
    · Numerical problems

MODULE 2 : STATES OF MATTER

  • Unit 1 Behaviour of Gases
    · The gaseous state
    · Boyle’s Law
    · Charles’ law-kelvin Temperature Scale
    · Avogadro’s principle
    · Dalton’s law of partial pressures
    · Ideal gas equation
    · The kinetic molecular theory of gases
    · Graham’s low of diffusion
    · Real gases-deviations from ideal gas behaviour.
    · Liquifaction of gases
    · Numerical problems
  • Unit 2 Liquids and Solids
    · The liquid state
    · The solid state
  • Unit 3 Solutions
    · Solution, solute and solvent
    · Concentration of solutions, – molarity molality, normality, mole fraction and mass percentage
    · Types of solutions
    · Raoult’s law
    · Ideal and non-ideal solutions
    · Colligate properties of solutions simple numerical problems.
    · Simple numerical problems
  • Unit 4 The Colloidal Solution
    · True solution, colloidal solution and a suspension
    ·
    Classification of colloids
    · Preparation of colloidal solutions
    · Properties of colloidal solutions
    · Properties of colloidal solutions
    · Applications of colloids

MODULE 3 : CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

  • Unit 1 Some Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics and Thermochemstry
    · System : Isolated, closed and open system
    · Processes; isothermal, adiabatic, reversible and irreversible
    · Standard state of a substance
    · Exothermic and endothermic reactions
    · Thrmochemical equations
    · Concept of internal energy and enthalpy change, relationship between rH and rE, first law of thermodynamics
    · Standard enthalpy of reactions
    · Enthalpy changes during a reaction: enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of neutralization
    · Hess’s law and its applications
    · Bond enthalpy
    · Numerical Problems
  • Unit 2 Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions
    · Concept of entropy, entropy change in a system and spontaneity
    · Relationship between G,H and S
    · Free energy change and spontaneity of a Chemical reaction
    · Standard free energy of formation
    · Free energy change and chemical equilibrium
    · Numerical problems

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